Монографии и статьи по Калининградской области

(2007) Kaliningrad: Enclaves and Economic Integration. Brussels: CEPS. 169p.

When the Soviet Union broke up, Kaliningrad suddenly found itself separated from mainland Russia by new frontiers. Hardly any other Russian region has been hit as hard by the economic disruption as Kaliningrad. The geographical situation of the region meant that it was more highly exposed to the destabilising effects of post-communist economic transformation. Since then, a dramatic trade opening has occurred, and regional trade and production have undergone profound changes. Kaliningrad has experienced a major shift in its economic orientation towards the tertiary sector and a new industrial orientation based on its position as an intermediary in EU–Russian trade. In short, that is what this report is about: the present and future economic development of this Russian enclave during its integration into the world economy, its place in the international division of labour and in the Russian–EU economic interface.


The major phenomenon relative to the economic development of the region is its enclave status. The report explores the specific features of enclave economies and specifically those of Kaliningrad. It argues that economic openness is a prerequisite for an enclave’s prosperity and the enclave should develop a multi-vectored orientation towards both the Russian market and the EU market, complementing industrial specialisation targeting the mainland with new features. Moreover, as economic integration – with the surrounding state or on a nondiscriminatory basis with the rest of the world – has significant positive effects on enclaves, the future of Kaliningrad’s regional economy and its specialisation is profoundly connected to Russian–EU relations and the prospects for their economic cooperation.

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Stefan Gänzle, Guido Müntel, Evgeny Vinokurov (eds.) (2008) Adapting to European Integration: Kaliningrad, Russia and the European Union. Manchester: Manchester University Press: CEPS. 288p.

Following the restoration of Lithuania's independence and the dismantlement of the Soviet Union, the Kaliningrad region is now an exclave surrounded by EU member states Departing from the analytical framework of Europeanisation, this book analyses the interaction between Russia and its Kalinin­grad region on one side, and their European partners on the other side, thus assessing the region's potential to serve as Russia's main opening to the EU.

How do EU relations 'feed back' into Kalin­ingrad's domestic arena, or, put differently, does Kaliningrad become 'Europeanised' - at least to some extent?  In particular, do EU standards and norms impact on the ex­clave and in what ways? The book not only offers thorough case studies of a number of policy areas affected by the EU (environmental, economics and higher education) it also refines our way of thinking about Europeanisation 'beyond' Europe.

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Винокуров Е. (2007) Экономическая специализация Калининградской области. Калининград: изд-во РГУ им. Канта. 329 стр.

«Экономическая специализация Калининградской области» посвящена вопросам экомического развития российского эксклава. Область рассматривается в контексте теории анклавов, отношений России и ЕС, а также российской интеграции в мировую экономику и международное разделение труда. Анализируется структурная экономическая трансформация региона в 1990-2000-х годах, структура регионального валового продукта, ключевые секторы региональной экономики, настоящая и потенциальная (оптимальная) экономическая специализация. Ряд глобальных процессов, включая расширение Евросоюза и российское вступление в ВТО, также охвачены книгой применительно к Калининградской области.

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"Economic Specialization of the Kaliningrad Oblast" focuses on the economic development of Russia's westernmost region. We approach the problem within the theoretical framework of the theory of enclaves, EU-Russia relations, and Russia's integration into the world economy and international division of labour.
We analyse structural features of economic transformation, regional gross product structure, industrial and agricultural production, services, trade flows (including trade with mainland Russia), current and potential economic specialisation of the region. A number of processes, including EU enlargement and Russia's WTO accession, find their way into the concept.

(2007, Fr) L’enclave russe de Kaliningrad : spécificité territoriale et intégration à l’économie mondiale  [The Russian Enclave of Kaliningrad : Territorial Specificity and Integration Into the World Economy]. PhD thesis defended at Pierre Mendes-France University.

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Integration of an enclave into the international economy: changing patterns of Kaliningrad’s economic specialisation. Int. J. Economic Policy in Emerging Economies, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007.

Abstract: The geographical situation of the Russian enclave led to its strong exposure to the destabilising effects of post-communist economic transformation. A dramatic trade opening has occurred, and regional trade and production has undergone profound changes. The major phenomenon relative to the economic development of Kaliningrad is its enclavity. Dynamic and sustainable economic development may be reached on the way of minimisation of enclave-specific negative factors (high transaction costs, vulnerability, peripherality, small size) and valorisation of enclave-specific opportunities (proximity to the EU market and the role of an intermediary in the EU–Russian trade flows).

Библиография работ, посвященных Калининградской области
По состоянию на июнь 2006 года.

Kaliningrad Transit and Visa Issues Revisited
PDF, July 2006. CEPS Commentary.

Kaliningrad's enclave-specific vulnerability. Published as:(2005) The Enclave-Specific Vulnerability of Kaliningrad, Liuhto K. (ed.) Kaliningrad 2020: its future competitiveness and role in the Baltic Sea economic region, Pan-European Institute, Turku, 56-74.

Economic Prospects for Kaliningrad: Between EU Enlargement and Russia’s Integration into the World Economy
PDF, June 2004. The paper examines the state of Kaliningrad’s economy and trade. The economic crisis that took place in Russia in the 1990s had severe consequences for Kaliningrad, as old patterns of production and trade were disrupted. Since 1999, however, the regional economy has grown with impressive speed. Kaliningrad’s Special Economic Zone (SEZ) status has played a crucial role in determining its new patterns of production and trade specialization. The paper argues that the SEZ regime has made the region’s economic growth both faster but also vulnerable. The paper also looks at the potential impact of EU enlargement and Russia’s WTO accession. Here, Kaliningrad may be vulnerable to twin shocks. However, the impact is likely to be mixed, representing dangers to Kaliningrad in the short-run but providing it with new opportunities for economic development in the medium- and long-term. Various scenarios are reviewed that include factors such as the existence/abolition of the SEZ regime, Russia’s WTO accession, and an EU-Russian Common economic space. The paper concludes with an argument for an increased appreciation of Kaliningrad’s position by both Russia and the EU and for a careful approach to drafting a new SEZ regime that provides for a long transition period.

(2004) Чем заменить Калининградскую ОЭЗ? Комментарий для Международной ассоциации экспертов по Калининградской области.
Нет необходимости полностью отказываться от идеи ОЭЗ в Калининградской области. Напротив, целесообразно создать «стандартную» экспортноориентированную ОЭЗ с учетом необходимости длительного переходного периода.  Режим ОЭЗ необходимо дополнить пакетом налоговых и инвестиционных льгот, а также особым режимом в рамках российско-европейских отношений.

…Взгляд из 2011 года: идеи этого комментария нашли свое отражение в федеральном законе 2006 по ОЭЗ в Калининградской области. Принятие этого закона позволило региону сделать рывок в экономическом развитии, развить пищепром, сборочные производства и транспортный комплекс. В 2012-2013 гг. на повестку дня должен стать вопрос о новом законе об ОЭЗ, т.к. действие «старых» льгот ограничено 2016 годом. «Теория анклавов», на мой взгляд, убедительно доказывает, что ключ к решению экономических проблем эксклавной территории – в режиме его экономической открытости. Поэтому центральное значение для области имеют интеграционные процессы России и Евросоюза: создание зоны свободной торговли, безвизовый режим, свободное движение капитала. Эффект этих мер на Калининградскую область будет в разы большим, нежели чем на регионы «материнской» России.

Kaliningrad in the Framework of EU-Russian Relations: Moving Toward Common Spaces. in English. Working paper published by K.U. Leuven

Kaliningrad Regional Development Agency. Bulletin No.1. Prospects for Kaliningrad Region's trade regime.
In English. First Bulletin of the Kaliningrad RDA co-authored by E.Vinokurov, A.Kharin, A.Ershov, A.Usanov.

Общее экономическое пространство ЕС-Россия и Калининградская область
Мировая экономика и международные отношения, 2003, №11, стр. 66-71.

CEPS Commentary on Kaliningrad March 2003
A shorter version of this commentary was written for the Centre for European Policy Studies in Brussels in Spring 2003. Changes in passenger transit regime were a hot topic then. As a matter of fact, it will stay this way for the years to come since the implemented decisions represent just a first step on the long way to more freedom of movement for persons.

Transit is just a part of it. Kaliningrad and the movement of people.
Word document, spring 2004.
The paper examines current stand on Kaliningrad transit issue analysing transit documents’ schemes after their implementation in 2003. Policy options for both Russia and the EU on the issue of movement of people concerning Kaliningrad Region are reviewed. The paper argues that passenger transit through Lithuania is just a part of a larger circle of problems and as such can be absorbed by more comprehensive solutions. A complex compromise solution is proposed on the basis of partial reciprocity. It is feasible for Russia to introduce visa-free regime for the EU citizens in Kaliningrad Region. On the EU side, visa regime for Kaliningrad may be kept intact, if multi-entry Schengen visas with longer validity will be made available to the residents of Kaliningrad and visa procedures will be eased up.

Винокуров Е., Кузин В. Анализ региональных квот в Калининградской ОЭЗ, 1998-2003

Винокуров Е., Ламанд В. (2003) Формирование торговой специализации Калининградской области

Презентация по Калининградской области (весна 2003)

См. также Анклавы и эксклавы.