Stefan Gänzle, Guido Müntel, Evgeny Vinokurov (eds.) (2008) Adapting to European Integration: Kaliningrad, Russia and the European Union. Manchester: Manchester University Press: CEPS. 288p.
Following the restoration of Lithuania's independence and the dismantlement of the Soviet Union, the Kaliningrad region is now an exclave surrounded by EU member states Departing from the analytical framework of Europeanisation, this book analyses the interaction between Russia and its Kaliningrad region on one side, and their European partners on the other side, thus assessing the region's potential to serve as Russia's main opening to the EU.
How do EU relations 'feed back' into Kaliningrad's domestic arena, or, put differently, does Kaliningrad become 'Europeanised' - at least to some extent? In particular, do EU standards and norms impact on the exclave and in what ways? The book not only offers thorough case studies of a number of policy areas affected by the EU (environmental, economics and higher education) it also refines our way of thinking about Europeanisation 'beyond' Europe.
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(2007) Kaliningrad: Enclaves and Economic Integration. Brussels: CEPS. 169p.
When the Soviet Union broke up, Kaliningrad suddenly found itself separated from mainland Russia by new frontiers. Hardly any other Russian region has been hit as hard by the economic disruption as Kaliningrad. The geographical situation of the region meant that it was more highly exposed to the destabilising effects of post-communist economic transformation. Since then, a dramatic trade opening has occurred, and regional trade and production have undergone profound changes. Kaliningrad has experienced a major shift in its economic orientation towards the tertiary sector and a new industrial orientation based on its position as an intermediary in EU–Russian trade. In short, that is what this report is about: the present and future economic development of this Russian enclave during its integration into the world economy, its place in the international division of labour and in the Russian–EU economic interface.
The major phenomenon relative to the economic development of the region is its enclave status. The report explores the specific features of enclave economies and specifically those of Kaliningrad. It argues that economic openness is a prerequisite for an enclave’s prosperity and the enclave should develop a multi-vectored orientation towards both the Russian market and the EU market, complementing industrial specialisation targeting the mainland with new features. Moreover, as economic integration – with the surrounding state or on a nondiscriminatory basis with the rest of the world – has significant positive effects on enclaves, the future of Kaliningrad’s regional economy and its specialisation is profoundly connected to Russian–EU relations and the prospects for their economic cooperation.
"Economic Specialization of the Kaliningrad Oblast" focuses on the economic development of Russia's westernmost region. We approach the problem within the theoretical framework of the theory of enclaves, EU-Russia relations, and Russia's integration into the world economy and international division of labour.
We analyse structural features of economic transformation, regional gross product structure, industrial and agricultural production, services, trade flows (including trade with mainland Russia), current and potential economic specialisation of the region. A number of processes, including EU enlargement and Russia's WTO accession, find their way into the concept.
Download the complete book in Russian.
Download the complete thesis in French
A l’éclatement de l’Union Soviétique, la région de Kaliningrad s’est brusquement trouvée séparée de la Russie par plusieurs frontières. L’ouverture économique brutale a eu des conséquences dramatiques, tandis que le commerce régional et la spécialisation de la production subissaient de profonds changements. Les particularités géographiques et légales d’alors rendaient ce territoire sensible aux expositions et turbulences résultant de son intégration dans l’économie mondiale. Ce dont il est question, en résumé, dans la thèse, c’est du problème de l’actuelle et de la future spécialisation économique de l’enclave russe au regard de son intégration internationale, de la division internationale du travail et des rélations UE-Russie.
Les facteurs exogènes acquièrent une importance exceptionnelle. Le commerce extérieur, tout comme les échanges avec les régions russes du continent, joue aussi un rôle extrêmement important dans l’économie de Kaliningrad : il est intégré, quoique de façon spécifique, dans l’économie européenne. Néanmoins, en tant que partie intégrante de la Fédération russe, l'Oblast entretien des liens rapprochés avec l’économie du continent russe. Les événements extérieurs, tels l’élargissement de l’UE ou l’accession négociée de la Russie à l’OMC, peuvent constituer des chocs économiques, et avoir un impact assez grand sur les flux du commerce régional.
Le phénomène majeur expliquant le développement économique de la région est son enclavité. La spécificité de la Région de Kaliningrad requiert des approches innovantes sur les questions relatives à la spécialisation économique régionale. Favoriser un régime et une intégration économiques avec l’étranger, ainsi qu’une division internationale du travail, apparaissent comme des déterminants d’un développement économique réussi.
Abstract: The geographical situation of the Russian enclave led to its strong exposure to the destabilising effects of post-communist economic transformation. A dramatic trade opening has occurred, and regional trade and production has undergone profound changes. The major phenomenon relative to the economic development of Kaliningrad is its enclavity. Dynamic and sustainable economic development may be reached on the way of minimisation of enclave-specific negative factors (high transaction costs, vulnerability, peripherality, small size) and valorisation of enclave-specific opportunities (proximity to the EU market and the role of an intermediary in the EU–Russian trade flows).
Bibliography on Kaliningrad
PDF, June 2006. A comprehensive bibliography on Kaliningrad as of June 2006.
Kaliningrad Transit and Visa Issues Revisited
PDF, July 2006. CEPS Commentary.
Kaliningrad's enclave-specific vulnerability. Published as:(2005) The Enclave-Specific Vulnerability of Kaliningrad, Liuhto K. (ed.) Kaliningrad 2020: its future competitiveness and role in the Baltic Sea economic region, Pan-European Institute, Turku, 56-74.
Economic Prospects for Kaliningrad: Between EU Enlargement and Russia’s Integration into the World Economy
PDF, June 2004. The paper examines the state of Kaliningrad’s economy and trade. The economic crisis that took place in Russia in the 1990s had severe consequences for Kaliningrad, as old patterns of production and trade were disrupted. Since 1999, however, the regional economy has grown with impressive speed. Kaliningrad’s Special Economic Zone (SEZ) status has played a crucial role in determining its new patterns of production and trade specialization. The paper argues that the SEZ regime has made the region’s economic growth both faster but also vulnerable. The paper also looks at the potential impact of EU enlargement and Russia’s WTO accession. Here, Kaliningrad may be vulnerable to twin shocks. However, the impact is likely to be mixed, representing dangers to Kaliningrad in the short-run but providing it with new opportunities for economic development in the medium- and long-term. Various scenarios are reviewed that include factors such as the existence/abolition of the SEZ regime, Russia’s WTO accession, and an EU-Russian Common economic space. The paper concludes with an argument for an increased appreciation of Kaliningrad’s position by both Russia and the EU and for a careful approach to drafting a new SEZ regime that provides for a long transition period.
What Can Replace the SEZ Kaliningrad? In English. A commentary written for the Kaliningrad Region Experts Development Association. June 2004. Primary address: http://www.kaliningradexpert.org/?doc=690&lng=eng. The SEZ idea should not be abandoned altogether. On the contrary, it is possible to create a "normal" export-oriented SEZ in Kaliningrad, providing for a prolonged transition period. This SEZ should be supplemented by, first, a package of tax and investment-related privileges, and, second, by the measures within the EU-Russian Common Economic Space. This economic policy on Kaliningrad might present itself as realistic and acceptable for Moscow, Kaliningrad economy, and Brussels. Russian version of the same commentary. June 2004.
Kaliningrad in the Framework of EU-Russian Relations: Moving Toward Common Spaces. in English. Working paper published by K.U. Leuven
Kaliningrad Regional Development Agency. Bulletin No.1. Prospects for Kaliningrad Region's trade regime.
In English. First Bulletin of the Kaliningrad RDA co-authored by E.Vinokurov, A.Kharin, A.Ershov, A.Usanov.
The Common European Economic Space and Kaliningrad
In Russian. Paper published in Mirovaya Ekonomika i Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniya, 2003, No.11, pp.66-71.
CEPS Commentary on Kaliningrad March 2003
A shorter version of this commentary was written for the Centre for European Policy Studies in Brussels in Spring 2003. Changes in passenger transit regime were a hot topic then. As a matter of fact, it will stay this way for the years to come since the implemented decisions represent just a first step on the long way to more freedom of movement for persons.
Transit is just a part of it. Kaliningrad and the movement of people.
Word document, spring 2004.
The paper examines current stand on Kaliningrad transit issue analysing transit documents’ schemes after their implementation in 2003. Policy options for both Russia and the EU on the issue of movement of people concerning Kaliningrad Region are reviewed. The paper argues that passenger transit through Lithuania is just a part of a larger circle of problems and as such can be absorbed by more comprehensive solutions. A complex compromise solution is proposed on the basis of partial reciprocity. It is feasible for Russia to introduce visa-free regime for the EU citizens in Kaliningrad Region. On the EU side, visa regime for Kaliningrad may be kept intact, if multi-entry Schengen visas with longer validity will be made available to the residents of Kaliningrad and visa procedures will be eased up.
Vinokurov E., Kuzin V. Analysis of regional quotas in SEZ Kaliningrad 1998-2003
Word document. 2004. In Russian.
Formation of Trade Specialization of the Kaliningrad Region
This paper was written together with the French economist Vincent Lamande who spent several years working for the projects on Kaliningrad. It was published in Voprosy Ekonomiki 2/2003. The above hyperlink will lead you to the English translation of the article. For original Russian text click VE Lamande Vinokurov.
Presentation on Kaliningrad (spring 2003)
This Power Point presentation was made in CEPS in the beginning of 2003. Have a look at the figures of public opinion polls at the last slide showing clearly the lack of public support for separatism in the Kaliningrad region.
You can also go to Enclaves to download papers on theoretical aspects of enclaves' development in their application to Kaliningrad.